The objective of this configuration example is to show how an organization with multiple locations of different sizes can connect the networks at each site. In this example, we have several sites that host shared network resources used by the entire organization. We also have small offices, which need to connect to the shared network resources. This organization wants direct connectivity between the sites that host shared network resources. We also want connections from small offices to converge at a reliable central location. The organization could have resources distributed among multiple sites, or business processes that fit a hybrid VPN architecture.
This configuration example is provided as a guide. Additional configuration settings might be necessary, or more appropriate, for your network environment.
In a hybrid VPN configuration, also known as a partial mesh, some sites are interconnected directly to each other (a mesh configuration), while other sites connect to a central location (hub and spoke).
Mesh Between Primary Sites
In this example, the sites that host shared network resources are considered primary sites. VPN connections between the primary sites are configured as a mesh, which means that all these sites have direct VPN connections to each other. This configuration depends heavily on the reliability of the primary sites that host unique network resources, because users must have reliable connectivity to these resources. If the organization adds additional remote locations, it could become necessary to expand the capacity of a primary site. This configuration provides resiliency for primary sites, because a failure at a single site impacts only services directly dependent on it.
Hub and Spoke Between Secondary Sites and a Central Hub
In this example, the small offices are considered secondary sites. VPN connections to the secondary sites are configured as hub and spoke. One of the primary sites, the Colocation site, is the central hub for VPN connectivity to the small offices. The central hub uses tunnel switching to route VPN traffic between each secondary site and all other sites. The small offices depend heavily on the reliability of the central hub, because it is a possible single point of failure for VPN tunnels from these secondary sites. If the organization adds additional remote locations, it could become necessary to expand the capacity of the central hub.
If most shared network resources are located at a single location, a centralized (hub and spoke) VPN architecture could be a better solution. If shared network resources are primarily dispersed among the remote sites, a decentralized (full mesh) VPN architecture could be a better solution.
The Firebox at each primary site establishes a VPN connection to a Firebox at every other primary site. The Firebox at the central hub (Colocation) acts as the primary gateway for VPN tunnels from all secondary sites. The central location receives all data transferred for secondary sites. If the central location receives a connection that is not intended for a resource at the central location, the device at the central location redirects the traffic to the tunnel for the destination. This is known as tunnel switching.
While this is a fault-tolerant design, sites that host resources unique to their location should have reliable connectivity appropriate for the resources they host.
A reliable central location
The central location handles the aggregate of all VPN connections. All VPN traffic from the small offices depends on the availability of this site.
Switched tunnels require bandwidth at the source, destination, and the central location. As shown in the previous diagram, the Small Office that receives traffic from HQ uses the upstream bandwidth at HQ, the upstream and downstream bandwidth at the Colo, and the downstream bandwidth at the Small Office. Due to encryption and encapsulation overhead, VPN bandwidth is measured at less than line speed.
A Firebox appropriate for each location
Firebox capabilities vary by model. For VPN configurations, you must consider the VPN throughput and tunnel capacity of each model. Network environment, configuration options, and other factors may also help you determine the most appropriate model for each site.
VPN throughput is the amount of data passed over the VPN per second. The central location processes switched traffic twice.
VPN tunnel count is determined by the number of connected networks (as configured in tunnel routes). For offices, this is generally the number of local networks multiplied by the number of remote networks. For the central location, this is the sum total of the tunnel count at all other locations.
For more information about the VPN throughput and branch office VPN tunnel capacity available for each Firebox model, see the product datasheets: https://www.watchguard.com/products/resources/datasheets.asp.
In this example, we present an organization that has four locations: a colocation facility (Colo), a corporate office (Corp), a distribution center (Dist), and a small office (RMT). You can also scale up this solution to support additional offices, distribution centers, and small offices.
We use these IP addresses for the sites:
|External interface IP address
|Default gateway IP address
|Private network allocated to site
|Un-routed network allocated to site
We created four example configuration files, one for each location in the example.
|Central location for the VPNs, the colocation facility
|A corporate office
|A distribution center
|A small office
How It Works
We created configuration files that contain branch office gateways and branch office tunnels defined for VPN connections between each site. Each site has three branch office VPN gateways and three branch office VPN tunnels configured.
To see the branch office VPN gateways:
- Start Policy Manager for the Firebox.
- Select VPN > Branch Office Gateways.
To see the branch office VPN tunnels:
- Start Policy Manager for the Firebox.
- Select VPN > Branch Office Tunnels.
Configuration at the Colocation Site (Colo)
Configuration at the HQ Corporate Network (Corp)
Configuration at the Distribution Center (Dist)
Configuration at the Small Office (RMT)
In these images, each tunnel is named to represent the local and remote networks it manages. The identifier in parentheses is the gateway used by the tunnel. The Colo has three gateways (one for each of the other primary sites and one for the secondary site), the primary sites have two gateways (one for each of the other primary sites), and the secondary sites have only one gateway (the Colo).
The tunnel routes have been defined to use the subnets allocated to each site, not the individual networks defined within the site. In this configuration, the small office (RMT) only requires three tunnel routes (not six tunnel routes) to reach the trusted and optional networks at each of the other sites. Any new networks in this allocation established at each site are routed over the existing branch office VPN.
For example, the tunnel routes Colo-to-RMT and RMT-to-Colo use the subnet IP address 172.16.0.0/16 as the address of the Colo network. This enables these tunnels to handle all traffic between the small office (RMT) network and the Colo trusted (172.16.1.0) and optional (172.16.2.0) networks.
When you look at the tunnel routes, remember that the local-remote pairs are defined relative to the two endpoint networks for the tunnel traffic. In some cases, the local address in a VPN tunnel route is the address of a network at another connected site. For example, in the Colo configuration, the Corp-to-RMT tunnel route uses the network IP address of the trusted network at Corp as local, even though it is not physically located at the Colo site.
This diagram shows all of the local and remote IP addresses of the tunnel routes that are configured between each location.
Tunnel Switching in Action
Now we can use the example configuration to follow the path a packet takes when a user at one location establishes a connection to a resource at a different location over switched tunnels.
A user at the small office (10.192.0.100) tries to connect to a resource at the corporate office (10.8.240.80). The packet first reaches the RMT Firebox at the small office. The RMT Firebox determines that the destination of the packet is available through the RMT-to-Corp tunnel to the Colo gateway.
The RMT Firebox device sends this packet through the RMT-to-Corp (Colo) tunnel.
The Colo Firebox receives this traffic identified as part of its Corp-to-RMT (RMT) tunnel in its local configuration. The local network IP address in this tunnel route in the Colo configuration file is local to the Corp site, not the Colo site.
The Colo Firebox determines that the destination of the decrypted packet is available through the RMT-to-Corp (Corp) tunnel to the Corp gateway.
The Colo Firebox switches the traffic from the Corp-to-RMT (RMT) tunnel to the RMT-to-Corp (Corp) tunnel.
The Corp Firebox receives this traffic identified as part of its Corp-to-RMT (Colo) tunnel, and delivers the decrypted packet to its destination, a server on the corporate office local network.
This configuration example demonstrates how to configure a partial mesh VPN network topology. In this configuration example, each primary site has a direct VPN connection to every other primary site. In the partial mesh topology, one primary site acts as a central hub to perform tunnel switching of VPN traffic between primary sites and secondary sites that directly connect to the central site.
This type of configuration can be a good fit for an organization that has resources distributed among several sites, or business processes that fit a hybrid architecture. The configuration described here can scale up to support additional primary or secondary sites.
This example also shows how to use subnet IP addresses in the tunnel route configuration to reduce the number of tunnels you must configure to connect private networks at each site.